Based on general rule, Muslim women are not given permission to marry non-Muslim men whatever their religion might be, specifically a Jewish or a Christian, which is considered as People of the Book by the Islamic schools.
How is the issue addressed in the Quran, and how does this deal with the idea of Muslim men and women marrying non-Muslims?
The Quran has just one verse which clearly tackles the problem. This is definitely the primary verse stating a provision on marriage with the category of non-Muslims.
According to Allah, one must not marry an idolatress until she believes, and it is certain that a believing maid is a much better option compared to an idolatress although she will please you. One should also not marry an idolater until they believe, and a believing slave is definitely much better compared to an idolater, although he would please you.
Even though the Quran acknowledges the possibilities of mutual attraction between a man or woman believer and a polytheist, this strongly suggests against this kind of alliance. This verse urges the Muslim women and men to opt for the modest slaves who are believers instead of the arrogant and rich polytheists even when the latter look more attractive compared to poor slaves.
Through getting married to slaves whatever their social hardship, the Islam encourages Muslims to give value to people based on other things aside from their social class, and thus, there is a need to strike the perfect balance between the differences formed by ethnic-tribal system during that time.
The verse in the Quran which tackles the marriage of Muslim women or men to believers of different religions, set certain rules with the use of egalitarian language. However, it is worthy to mention that scholars have a unanimous agreement on the prohibition of marriage of Muslim women to a Christian or Jewish, while no Quranic part offers for this prohibition justifying such discrimination.
In this regard, the question raised is how people today, in this current cultural, globalized, and conceptual situation, categorize people based on their cultural, religious, or faith backgrounds. How will you recognize a person as Muslim, believer, Jew, Christian, or polytheists? What will you have to say about people who belong to a certain religious culture, most of whom are Muslims, but still admit to be agnostic or atheist?
It is true that the so called mixed marriages could be more exposed to numerous misunderstandings because of religious or cultural differences, which may, at any moment, could lead to instability in the marriage. But, this is something that concerns every marriage. At the end of the day, the most important thing is to share a common interest at the spiritual and intellectual levels strengthened primarily by mutual respect.
If you find yourself wanting to date a Muslim man or woman, it is first important to know if you are actually allowed to take things to the next level.